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A Summary of Passive and Active Treatment Technologies for

acid drainage is traditionally referred to as "acid mine drainage" or "acid rock drainage" The term AMD in this paper encompasses acid (ie low pH) drainage formed by sulphide oxidation resulting from mining activities as well as metalliferous drainage which may have a near-neutral or acidic pH Get price


A Medley of Potpourri Acid mine drainage

Acid rock drainage has recently been a hindrance to the completion of the construction of Interstate 99 near State College Pennsylvania However this acid rock drainage didn't come from a mine rather it was produced by oxidation of pyrite-rich rock which was unearthed during a road cut and then used as filler material in the I-99 construction Get price


Acid Mine Drainage

Summary Acid mine drainage (AMD) refers to the outflow of acidic water from a mining site In most cases this acid comes primarily from oxidation of iron sulfide (FeS2 also known as pyrite or fool's gold) which is often found in conjunction with valuable metals Get price


AMD Chemical uses and costs

Major disadvantages are its high cost the dangers involved with handling the chemical poor sludge properties and freezing problems in cold weather Ammonia Anhydrous ammonia is effective in treating Acid Mine Drainage having a high ferrous iron and/or manganese content Get price


Acid Mine Drainage Overview

Acid Mine Drainage and Effects on Acid Mine Drainage Overview Acid rock drainage (ARD) is produced by the oxidation of sulfide minerals (Younger et al 2002) The rates of chemical reactions (equations 2 3 and 4) can be significantly accelerated by bacteria specifically Thiobacillus ferrooxidans Get price


Acid mine drainage

Acid mine drainage acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD) or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mines or coal mines Acid rock drainage occurs naturally within some environments as part of the rock weathering process but is exacerbated by large-scale earthGet price


3 1 An introduction to acid mine drainage

An introduction to acid mine drainage Iron pyrite FeS2 also known as 'fool's gold' is the most important source of nearly all water pollution originating from mines and their residue deposits When pyrite is exposed to air and water it oxidises to form sulphuric acid andGet price


Acid mine drainage explained

Acid mine drainage also affects the wildlife living within the affected body of water Aquatic macroinvertebrates living in streams or parts of streams affected by acid mine drainage show less individuals less diversity and less biomass Many species of fish also cannot tolerate the pollution Get price


Characterisation of Acid Mine Drainage Using a Combination



Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing

Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain Get price


Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage

The formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) a highly acidic and metal-rich solution is the biggest environmental concern associated with coal and mineral mining Once produced AMD can severely impact the surrounding ecosystem due to its acidity metal toxicity sedimentation and Get price


Acid mine drainage definition of Acid mine drainage

Acid mine drainage (AMD) or acid rock drainage (ARD) refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually abandoned) metal mines or coal mines However other areas where the earth has been disturbed (e g construction sites subdivisions transportation corridors etc ) may also contribute acid rock drainage to the environment Get price


Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) / Acid Rock Drainage (ARD)

Acid Rock Drainage as a concern and part of all metals and mining operations ARD is often mislabelled AMD or Acid Mine Drainage too So to better understand AMD and ARD let's begin by defining some terms like pH -The standard measure of acidity The pH scale actually measures hydrogen ion concentration in water solutions Pure neutral Get price



Mines built as early as the 1800's were developed in a manner which utilized gravity drainage to avoid excessive water accumulation in the mines As a result water polluted by acid iron sulfur and aluminum drained away from the mines and into streams Results of Acid Mine Drainage Acid mine drainage is one of Region 3 most serious water Get price


Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area

mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage However the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7 2 to 7 5 and low chemical concentrations Get price


Acid mine drainage and metal concentrations (closed coal

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is widely acknowledged as one of the greatest environmental problems facing the mining industry AMD is characterised as having low pH (commonly 2 to 4) leading to elevated concentrations of metals such as cadmium copper iron lead and zinc Get price


Acid mine drainage – the chemistry

dissociated sulphuric acid You can see from equation (1) that in order for these reactions to happen the pyrite must be exposed to both air and Mining is one of South Africa's most important industries but it comes with a cost Rebecca Garland explains about acid mine drainage Acid mine drainage – Get price


What are the chemical equations for the formation of acid

2-12-2006What are the chemical equations for the formation of acid rain? I need to know how acid rain is formed i#39 m writing an essay and cant find a clear version of the chemical equations used in the formation of acid rain Source(s) chemical equations formation acid rain https //shortly im/jEz12 Get price


Acid Mine drAinAge (AMd) MAnAgeMent

ACID MINE DRAINAGE (AMD) MANAGEMENT 285 Acid Mine drAinAge (AMd) MAnAgeMent r W gAikWAd*And d V guptA * Department of Chemical Engineering Pravara Rural Engineering College Loni Dist Ahmednagar 413 736 M S India ** University School of Chemical Technology GGS Indraprastha Universi-ty New Delhi 110 006 IndiaGet price


Acid Mine Drainage

Acid Mine Drainage Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is produced when sulfide-bearing material is exposed to oxygen and water The production of AMD usually but not exclusively occurs in iron sulfide-aggregated rocks The sulfide minerals oxidize in the presence of water and oxygen to form acidic sulfate-rich drainage Get price


Constructed Wetlands for Treating Acid Mine Drainage

Constructed Wetlands for Treating Acid Mine Drainage By Kathryn Smith Introduction The mining industry has felt the burden of both negative environmental criticism and strong governmental regulations In the past mineral extraction and processing has been a source of many contaminants entering our water soil and air Get price


remediation of Acid Mine Waters

Acid drainage usually referred to as acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs as a result of naturally oc-curring chemical reactions of exposed sulphide containing minerals with water oxygen and bac-teria (Down and Stocks 1977) The bacteria known as Acidthiobacillus (formerly thiobacillus) ferroox-idans (Kelly and Wood 2000) acts as the catalyst in Get price


amrclearinghouse AMD Basics

Pyrite reactions AMD is not limited This reaction is referred to as the rate determining step in the overall acid-generating sequence Equation 3 describes the next reaction where the ferric ions now hydrolyze in water to form ferric hydroxide The Science of Acid Mine Drainage and Passive Treatment from PA DEP Get price


Oxygenation of Ferrous Iron

chemicals were used in all test solutions Effect of Oxygenation of Ferrous Iron on Surface Waters Prime examples are the rivers draining the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania Ohio and West ia As a result of acid mine drainage these waters contain large quantities of iron and have low pH values Get price


An Explanation of Acid Mine Drainage

Rainwater or streams become acidified after they run through the mine's tailings In hilly terrain older coal mines were sometimes built so that gravity would drain out water from inside the mine Long after those mines are closed acid mine drainage continues Get price


Fundamentals of Mine

Fundamentals of Mine-Drainage Formation and Chemistry Kathleen S Smith and Thomas R Wildeman Billings Symposium / ASMR Annual Meeting Assessing the Toxicity Potential of Mine-Waste Piles Workshop June 1 2003 U S Department of the Interior Colorado School of Mines Get price


Acid mine drainage composition and the implications

1 Introduction Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major world-wide environmental problem that adversely affects both surface and ground waters It is caused by the oxidation and hydrolysis of metal sulphides (in particular pyrite) in water permeable strata or in mined spoil dumped on the surface Get price


Acid mine drainage past presentfuture?

The generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) and release of water containing elevated concentrations of metals from mine wastes is an environmental problem of global scale (equation 2) generating acidic conditions which could have large impacts on aquatic life Waste rock piles Get price


Heavy metals from acid mine drainage

Heavy metals fi-om acid mine drainage — impacts and modelling 59 amount of iron discharged to the river in order to enable restocking of the river by salmon To ensure that the pH is maintained above 6 0 in both the Pelenna and Gwenffrwd it is planned that where possible acid mine Get price


2 2Acid mine drainage

The redox reaction in this acid mine drainage can be summarised by the equation (as yet unbalanced) FeS 2 + oxygen + water !sludge + H 2SO 4 How many litres of water would be used up in a reaction with a cubic metre of pyrite and how much sulphuric acid is produced? If this acid finds its way into a lake how could you predict whether the sludgeGet price


Acid mine

Abstract The BOD inhibition test the activated sludge respiration inhibition test and the Microtox Bioassay procedure were examined for their potential as rapid toxicity screening methods for acid mine drainage (AMD) and for setting toxicity threshold levels in receiving waters Get price


Acid Mine Drainage

acid mine drainage continues to pose a potential problem in some areas despite improved prediction and prevention techniques Acid Mine Drainage Research Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been the subject of intensive research since the 1960's Research efforts have proceeded recently through the Acid DrainageGet price


How does mine drainage occur?

19-7-2017Mine drainage is formed when pyrite (an iron sulfide) is exposed and reacts with air and water to form sulfuric acid and dissolved iron Some or all of this iron can precipitate to form the red orange or yellow sediments in the bottom of streams containing mine drainage The acid runoff further dissolves heavy metals such as copper Get price


Acid Mine Drainage Chemistry

Acid Mine Drainage Chemistry Acid mine drainage impacts stream and river ecosystems through acidity ferric ion (Fe 3+) precipitation oxygen depletion and release of heavy metals associated with coal and metal mining such as aluminum (Al 3+) zinc (Zn 2+) and manganese (Mn 2+) Get price

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